THE INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY AND NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION TREATY Exam Click “next” to start the exam. Only one possible answer for each question. 1. When negotiations on the NPT first began, which of the following was considered a strategic nuclear threat?a. Catalytic warsb. Accidental authorization of weapons launchesc. Unauthorized initiation of nuclear hostilitiesd. All of the abovee. None of the above2. The Irish Resolution put forth by Frank Aiken outlined the concepts that were later incorporated into the NPT as:a. Articles I, II, and IIIb. Articles IV and Vc. Article VId. Article Xe. Articles VII, VIII, and IX3. The theory that smaller nations could protect themselves from larger nuclear powers by acquiring a small nuclear arsenal of their own is known as:a. Mutually Assured Destructionb. Horizontal Proliferationc. Limited Deterrenced. Finite Deterrence4. Under the NPT, nonweapons states have an “inalienable right” toa. Peaceful nuclear explosivesb. Nuclear fuel makingc. Peaceful nuclear energyd. Only small research reactorse. All of the above5. The way in which we now view Article V of the NPT demonstrates that:a. The NPT can be reinterpretedb. Activities virtually indistinguishable from bomb making are too dangerous to be considered peacefulc. Rights to clearly unbeneficial nuclear activities are unlikely to be insisted upond. All of the abovee. None of the above6. The most restrictive interpretation of Article IV’s “inalienable right to develop research, production and use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes” is subject to the NPT restriction that:a) Nuclear weapons states should not transfer control over or assist or encourage in any way states that lack nuclear weapons to acquire themb) States that lack nuclear weapons should not receive nuclear weapons directly or indirectly or make or receive help making themc) All peaceful nuclear activities and materials must be subject to safeguards capable of preventing military diversionsd) All of the above7. The least restrictive interpretation of Article IV’s “inalienable right to develop research, production and use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes” that:a) Countries have a right to engage in all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycleb) Countries can make nuclear explosives so long as there are clear assurances that the explosives are being used for civilian, non-military, purposesc) Countries can engage in any nuclear activity so long as they are occasionally safeguarded by international, or in the case of Euratom by multi-lateral, inspectors and can be justified as being for some non-military, non-explosive purposed) All of the above8. Frank Aiken justified his original formulation in 1958 and 1959 for the Irish Resolution for reasons that included:a) It was more urgent to prevent the further spread of nuclear weapons than to force the superpowers to disarmb) A neighbor’s mere possession of nuclear weapons was provocative and likely to encourage either more proliferation or acts of warc) It was imperative to impose a ban on nuclear testing for all countriesd) A and Be) B and C9. What nuclear activities did Foreign Minister Frank Aiken consider to be potentially perilously close to bomb-making?a) Large power reactorsb) Nuclear fuel-making activitiesc) Small research reactorsd) A and Be) All of the above10. After 1961 and the Swedish Resolution, what was considered to be the primary nuclear weapons worry?a. Horizontal proliferationb. The military diversion of civilian nuclear activities and materialsc. The ever-escalating nuclear arms race between the superpowers quantitatively and the increasing number of nuclear weapons systems placed on hair-trigger alertd. None of the above11. The premises of the Swedish Resolution differed from those of the Irish Resolution by implicitly assuming that:a) Nations had a natural right to self-defense and therefore to acquire nuclear weaponsb) The benefits of civilian nuclear energy were critical to countries’ economic developmentc) Nonweapons states needed to be compensated for foregoing the acquisition of nuclear weaponsd) A and Be) All of the above12. The three pillars view of the NPT:a) Was a compromise essential to getting final agreement to the NPT in 1968b) Was only recently adopted by the United Statesc) Is no longer articulated by US officialsd) A and Ce) B and C Name Email Time is Up!